(1) In health education, students acquire the health information and skills necessary to become healthy adults and learn about behaviors in which they should and should not participate. To achieve that goal, students will understand the following: students should first seek guidance in the area of health from their parents; personal behaviors can increase or reduce health risks throughout the lifespan; health is influenced by a variety of factors; students can recognize and utilize health information and products; and personal/interpersonal skills are needed to promote individual, family, and community health.
(2) In middle school, students learn about health behaviors that will safeguard their health as well as information related to understanding puberty and the reproductive process. Students are taught about factors in their environment that impact, not only their health and the health of their families, but the health of their communities as well. Middle school students learn to refine their critical-thinking skills to avoid unsafe situations, analyze health information and products, and maintain healthy relationships. Students begin to investigate health in the broader context of community.
(b) Knowledge and skills.
(1) Health information. The student comprehends ways to enhance and maintain personal health throughout the life span. The student is expected to:
(A) analyze the interrelationships of physical, mental, and social health;
(B) identify and describe types of eating disorders such as bulimia, anorexia, or overeating;
(C) identify and describe lifetime strategies for prevention and early identification of disorders such as depression and anxiety that may lead to long-term disability; and
(D) describe the life cycle of human beings including birth, dying, and death.
(2) Health information. The student recognizes ways that body structure and function relate to personal health throughout the life span. The student is expected to:
(A) explain how differences in growth patterns among adolescents such as onset of puberty may affect personal health;
(B) describe the influence of the endocrine system on growth and development;
(C) compare and contrast changes in males and females;
(D) describe physiological and emotional changes that occur during pregnancy; and
(E) examine physical and emotional development during adolescence.
(3) Health information. The student comprehends and utilizes concepts relating to health promotion and disease prevention throughout the life span. The student is expected to:
(A) explain the role of preventive health measures, immunizations, and treatment in disease prevention such as wellness exams and dental check-ups;
(B) analyze risks for contracting specific diseases based on pathogenic, genetic, age, cultural, environmental, and behavioral factors;
(C) distinguish risk factors associated with communicable and noncommunicable diseases; and
(D) summarize the facts related to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and sexually transmitted diseases.
(4) Health information. The student knows how to research, access, analyze, and use health information. The student is expected to:
(A) use critical thinking to analyze and use health information such as interpreting media messages;
(B) develop evaluation criteria for health information;
(C) demonstrate ways to use health information to help self and others; and
(D) discuss the legal implications regarding sexual activity as it relates to minor persons.
(5) Health behaviors. The student engages in behaviors that reduce health risks throughout the life span. The student is expected to:
(A) analyze and demonstrate strategies for preventing and responding to deliberate and accidental injuries;
(B) describe the dangers associated with a variety of weapons;
(C) identify strategies for prevention and intervention of emotional, physical, and sexual abuse;
(D) identify information relating to abstinence;
(E) analyze the importance of abstinence from sexual activity as the preferred choice of behavior in relationship to all sexual activity for unmarried persons of school age;
(F) discuss abstinence from sexual activity as the only method that is 100% effective in preventing pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and the sexual transmission of HIV or acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and the emotional trauma associated with adolescent sexual activity;
(G) demonstrate basic first-aid procedures including Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) and the choking rescue;
(H) explain the impact of chemical dependency and addiction to tobacco, alcohol, drugs and other substances;
(I) relate medicine and other drug use to communicable disease, prenatal health, health problems in later life, and other adverse consequences;
(J) identify ways to prevent the use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs such as alternative activities;
(K) apply strategies for avoiding violence, gangs, weapons and drugs; and
(L) explain the importance of complying with rules prohibiting possession of drugs and weapons.
(6) Influencing factors. The student understands how physical and social environmental factors can influence individual and community health throughout the life span. The student is expected to:
(A) relate physical and social environmental factors to individual and community health such as climate and gangs; and
(B) describe the application of strategies for controlling the environment such as emission control, water quality, and waste management.
(7) Influencing factors. The student investigates positive and negative relationships that influence individual, family, and community health. The student is expected to:
(A) analyze positive and negative relationships that influence individual and community health such as families, peers, and role models; and
(B) develop strategies for monitoring positive and negative relationships that influence health.
(8) Influencing factors. The student researches ways in which media and technology influence individual and community health throughout the life span. The student is expected to:
(A) explain the role of media and technology in influencing individuals and community health such as watching television or reading a newspaper and billboard; and
(B) explain how programmers develop media to influence buying decisions.
(9) Influencing factors. The student understands how social factors impact personal, family, community, and world health. The student is expected to:
(A) describe personal health behaviors and knowledge unique to different generations and populations; and
(B) describe characteristics that contribute to family health.
(10) Personal/interpersonal skills. The student recognizes and uses communication skills in building and maintaining healthy relationships. The student is expected to:
(A) differentiate between positive and negative peer pressure;
(B) describe the application of effective coping skills;
(C) distinguish between effective and ineffective listening such as paying attention to the speaker versus not making eye-contact;
(D) summarize and relate conflict resolution/mediation skills to personal situations; and
(E) appraise the importance of social groups.
(11) Personal/interpersonal skills. The student understands, analyzes, and applies healthy ways to communicate consideration and respect for self, family, friends, and others. The student is expected to:
(A) describe techniques for responding to criticism;
(B) demonstrate strategies for coping with problems and stress;
(C) describe strategies to show respect for individual differences including age differences;
(D) describe methods of communicating emotions;
(E) describe the effect of stress on personal and family health; and
(F) describe the relationships between emotions and stress.
(12) Personal/interpersonal skills. The student analyzes information and applies critical-thinking, decision-making, goal-setting and problem-solving skills for making health-promoting decisions. The student is expected to:
(A) interpret critical issues related to solving health problems;
(B) relate practices and steps necessary for making health decisions;
(C) appraise the risks and benefits of decision-making about personal health;
(D) predict the consequences of refusal skills in various situations;
(E) examine the effects of peer pressure on decision making;
(F) develop strategies for setting long-term personal and vocational goals; and
(G) demonstrate time-management skills.
(13) Bullying prevention. The student analyzes bullying information and applies strategies for enhancing and maintaining healthy personal relationships throughout the life span. The student is expected to:
(A) analyze strategies for preventing bullying, harassment, dating violence, and sexual assault;
(B) describe the seriousness of various forms of bullying such as harassment, acquaintance rape, and sexual abuse;
(C) demonstrate empathy toward others;
(D) analyze ways to show disapproval of inconsiderate and disrespectful bullying behavior; and
(E) recognize the responsibility to report bullying behavior.
Source: The provisions of this §115.23 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7740; amended to be effective August 26, 2013, 38 TexReg 3413.